There is a specific and well-developed methodology to evaluate projects. It is based on the concept of benefit/cost analysis. Simply stated, it is a systematic process for calculating and comparing benefits and costs of a project or policy. Both benefits and costs must be expressed in terms of their present values using a technique that estimates the time value of money. Lack of data makes it impossible to perform such economic evaluations in the case of Cuba.
This Appendix addresses a few of the projects explained in several chapters of this book. Due to the appropriate data, an ad hoc procedure is implemented. The total costs are calculated, the currency (national or foreign) is stated along with the date it was spent. Recall that the main objective of this book is to show the magnitude of Fidel Castro’s projects, and not the cost of the projects.
A – SCHOOLS IN THE COUNTRYSIDE
Table A1. Basic Secondary Schools in the Countryside (ESBEC) (Cuban Pesos).
214 schools (a) @ CP 727,300 per school (b) for a total cost of CP 155,642,200
86,864 students (c) @ CP 659 per student (d) during 30 years (e) for a total of CP 1,717,301,280
TOTAL FOR ESBEC: CP 1,872,943,480
(a) The figure is for the 2006-2007 school year. Source: ONE. 2011 Statistical Yearbook, Table 18.5 (http://www.one.cu/aec2011/esp/18_tabla_cuadro.htm).
(b) During a speech on 29 March 1973, Fidel Castro reiterated what had been said by a previous speaker: The 4.4 secondary schools in the countryside built in the previous year had a total cost of a little over 3 million Cuban pesos (assumed 3.2 million) (http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1973/esp/f290373e.html). All the schools were built with a capacity for 500 students, had the same area (6,959.25 m2 ) following a pattern developed by the government (Figueroa et al. 1974: 46).
(c) Source: ONE. 2011 Statistical Yearbook, Table 18.15 (http://www.one.cu/aec2011/esp/18_tabla_cuadro.htm)
(d) Figure provided by Fidel Castro in a speech of May 17, 1977 (http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1977/esp/f170577e.html).
(e) All schools were not built at the same time. The first school was finished in 1968-1969 and the system started to be dismantled in 2009. The 30-year weighted average was estimated from information appearing in several relevant publications and in Castro’s speeches. There is also the factor of schools still functioning while expecting to be phased out.
Table A2. High Schools in the Countryside (Cuban Pesos).
251 schools (a) @ CP 727,300 per school (b) for a total cost of CP 182,552,300
205,209 students (c) @ CP 1303 per student (d) during 30 years (e) for a total of CP 8,204,172,110
TOTAL CP 8,204,172,110
(a), (b), (c), (d) and (e) as in Table A1.
Table A3. Summary Table for Schools in the Countryside (Cuban Pesos).
The basic secondary schools = 1,872,943,480
The high schools = 8,204,172,110
TOTAL = 10,077,115,590
B – HAVANA’S GREEN BELT
All data in this section, were taken from Castro’s speech of September 28, 1968 (http://cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1968/esp/1280968e.html).
Table B1. General overview of the tasks performed.
Item Unit Phase 1 Phase 2
Nurseries built # 15
Area cab 69
Seeds planted mt 50
Soil bags filled million 123
Germination million 125
Transplant to bags million 115
Replanted million 10
Mesh greenhouse shadow # 70,000
Man-days working in shadows million 2.5
Soil bags filled million 28.45
Bags with seed. Direct planting million 22.91
Bags with seedlings million 20.49
Table B2. Distribution of the seedlings produced.
Matanzas province 1,809,000
Las Villas province 406,000
Isle of Pines 3,398,000
Regionals in the country 23,980,000
Havana Greenbelt 34,072,000
Lost in nursery or transporting 7,381,000
In nurseries for planting or replanting 43,954,000
Table B3. Status of fruit tree nurseries.
Mango Seedling: 164,279 In process: 824,582
Prickly Custard apple Seedling: 180,379 In process: 184,496
Others (a) Seedling: 2,333,699 In process:1,384,189
Total Seedling: 2,678,357 In process:2,393,267
(a) Includes lychee, scaly custard apple, avocado, cashew, criollo lemon, tamarind, mamey and others.
Table B4. Status of the Forestry and Ornamental Nurseries.
INDIF (a) 11 4,613,149 of 11 species.
Havana’s Greenbelt (in transit) 42 629,994 of 42 species.
Total: 5,243,143 in 9 nurseries.
a National Institute of Industrial Forestry Development.
ADD IT?Note: The long list of machinery, equipment and other resources employed is omitted but can be found at the listed source.
Table B5. Crops planted.
Fruit trees (a): 908,389
Coffee (b) 39,400,613
Guandul bean: 13,793,110
(a) Not all planted because of the length of time of grafting but most plantings would be completed in the following months.
(b) Castro mentioned that most coffee was already planted. When those planted in backyards are added, they total more than 40 million plants.
Table B6. Status of the project concerning windbreaks.
Traced (not planted): 531,401 meters.
Planted: 212,619 meters.
Hills traced: 59
Hills planted: 44
Table B7. Number of agricultural technical schools established.
Grafting: 2 courses of 3 months duration.
Coffee technicians: 3 courses (no specified duration).
Piccolino tractor operator: 1 course (no specified duration).
Table B8. Construction of small towns in the area and the number of houses.
Valle Grande: 120
Calle 10: 15
Los Mangos: 17
Mártires de La Coubre: 12
Under construction: 4
Table B9. Status and number of microplans developed.
Finished in 1967: 193
Finished in 1968: 422
Under construction in 1968: 102
Total finished and under construction: 521
Total number of houses: 888
Table B10. Number and status of Hydraulic projects.
Under construction: 15
Under planning: 54
Total water capacity: 150 million cubic meters.
Table B11. Number of workers listed in labor mobilizations.
Nurseries: 2,527,000 Planting: 6,606,000 Average number of daily workers 25,100
Table B12. Perspectives in the short-run.
Havana nurseries: 1968 seedlings: 50 million.
Havana 1969: 130 million.
Nurseries in Isle of Pines 1968: 30 million.
Citrus seedlings 1968-70 (for the whole country): 70 million.
Forestry areas: 1,000 micro forestry.
Large forests: Solidarity Forest: 98,428 plants.
National Zoo: 400 acres reserved in the Rio Cristal area.
Metropolitan Park: 1325 acres. It has one nursery with 98 species and 236,020 seedlings of forestry and ornamental plants. It will also have three types of forestry, sports facilities, a boxing coliseum, volleyball court, tennis court, baseball field, swimming pools, etc. In addition, a cultural area for children, an attractions park, an open theater, an experimental zone for arts research, and a large moving observation tower as good as a new metropolitan structure.
Botanic Garden: 1325 acres. There is a nursery installed with 57 species, 23,962 seedlings in addition to 317 new varieties in production.
C – DAMS AND RESERVOIRS
Table C1. Estimated partial cost of building, retaining and repairing dams and reservoirs.
Construction: Zaza Dam: 750,000,000 m3 @ 1968-71 CP 0.036/m3 total=CP 27,000,000 (a)
Construction: El Mate Dam: 200,000,000 m3 @ 1968 CP 0.088/m3 = CP 15,726,000 (b)
Construction (c): Survey: 1 ha @ 1980s US$ 8,000 (d)
Rebuilding ha Survey 1 3,800 US $ 1980s UN-FAOd
Retaininge m3 Survey 1,000,000,000 0.12 120,000,000 US $ 1980s UN-FAOd
Renovationf ha Survey 1 680 US $ 1980s UN-FAOd
Note: Cuba’s Statistical Yearbook for 2011 lists 239 dams with a capacity of 8.7743 billion cubic meters.
Source: Data obtained from several sources, as stated in the footnotes.
(a) Jatibonico (http://es.touristlink.com/cuba/embalse-zaza/overview.html).
(b) Fidel Castro’s speech (http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1968/esp/f050768e.html).
(c) It includes both the dam and the construction of a new system (UN-FAO).
(d) Rebuilding an average irrigation system, including an adequate drainage system (UN-FAO): http://www.eurosur.org/medio_ambiente/bif53.htm.
(e) http://www.eurosur.org/medio_ambiente/bif53.htm (UN-FAO).
(f) It refers to the renovation of a deteriorated irrigation system along with its distributive canals. Add $240/ha for mechanisms to correct levels of salinization.
Note: Cuba’s Statistical Yearbook for 2011 lists 239 dams with a capacity of 8.7743 billion cubic meters.
D – FIELD AND DRAINAGE
Table D1. Estimated cost of field irrigation and drainage, by type of irrigation.
Type Area (ha) Establishment cost Operating cost (a)
Surface 448,161 @$350/ha=$ 156,857,050 @$564/ha=$252,763,932 Total Costs: US $409,620,982
Sprinkler 402,663 @$1,800/ha=$ 724,793,400 @$727/ha (b)= 292,736,001 Total Costs: US$ 1,017,529,401
Localized 19,492 @2,300/ha=$44,831,600 @$890/ha=$ 17,347,880 Total Costs: US$62,179,480
Parts: 1977 US$ 15,000,000
Factory (c): 1977 CP 4,600,000
(a) Does not specify on what basis (if annual or during the life of the system).
(b) Midpoint between the two other systems.
(c) Fidel Castro’s speech at the inaugural ceremony on July 28, 1977 (http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1977/esp/f280777e.html).
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2000: 162-164). Irrigation in Latin America and the Caribbean in Figures – El Riego en América Latina y el Caribe en Cifras – Water Report 20, Rome, Italy. ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/aglw/docs/wr20.pdf.
E – INTENSIVE GRAZING AND DRY LOT FEEDING
Table E1. Estimated cost for intensive grazing in 7 caballerias with artificial pastures with a rotation management system and a capacity of 250,000 cows with their calves.
2600 grazing units (a) @ 50000 1964-67 Cuban Pesos=CP 130,000,000 (b)
(a) Facilities include the milking barn, 2 or 3 shadow barns, bullpens, septic tanks, and other constructions.
(b) It includes the facilities, the fences and other constructions.
Source: Aranda (1975: 105-107).
Table E2. Estimated investment cost for dry lots with a capacity of 167 animals per unit and up to four rotations per year.
16 dry lots @ 1,000,000 1964-67 Cuban Pesos=CP 16,000,000
Source: Aranda (1975: 96-97)
F – THE ERNESTO “CHE” GUEVARA INVADING BRIGADE
Table F1. Evolution of the machinery and equipment to performed the task assigned.
Heavy machinery (a): October 1967: 159
January 1968: 91
March-April 1968: 250
Additional equipment: All machinery and equipment necessary to complement the activities of the Brigade.
Task to perform (b): Clearing 2,074,326 acres.
(a) Castro mentions the addition of another group of 250 crawler tractors but does not specify how may in total and what are the rest. He mentions the Richard CD-6 crawler tractors. It appears that the 500 are the same.
(b) Table ??? above describes the specific tasks assigned.
Sources: Fidel Castro’s speech to initiate the invasion of the Brigade on 30 of October 1967: http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1967/esp/f301067e.html.
Fidel Castro’s speech to the Brigade on 24 of December 1967: http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1967/esp/f241267e.html.
G – THE FOOD PLAN
Table G1. Partial components and initial goals of the Food Plan as of 1990.
Sugarcane: Build field irrigation and drainage to 2 million acres.
Rice: Implement engineering systems to 33,160 acres per year.
Dam: Build 30 new ones, including their irrigation systems.
Swine: Build 50 Integrated centers.
Poultry: Build 1,800 facilities to produce 700 million eggs per year.
Citrus: Apply micro jet irrigation to 3,300 acres.
Hoses: Build 2 factories.
Plantain: Build micro jet irrigation in 160,000 acres of banana and burro plantains.
Viandas: Double the area under irrigation.
Vegetables: Double the area under Irrigation.
Dairy: Build 1,000 new facilities at 200 per year.
Fish farming: Build 6,600 acres to harvest farm 20,000 tons and double it in two years.
Research: Develop seeds and pest control in laboratories.
Havana province: Grow 96,000 acres of viandas and vegetables in rotation per year.
Camps: Build 30 camps with a 300-worker capacity each and then 50 more.
Yoke: Tame 3,000 of them.
Animals: Tame 100,000 bulls and 300 buffaloes, and increase it to 400,000 bulls
Source: Fidel Castro’s speech in the 30th anniversary of the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (CDR), Karl Marx Theatre, Havana, 28 September of 1990: http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1990/esp/f280990e.html.
Table G2. Estimated cost of the 4 cold-storage facilities built under the Food Plan.
Labor: CP 46,020 Tubing & construction materials: US$ 1,000,000 Plyfoam: US$ 400,000 Steel (a): 600 metric tons (no cost mentioned) Pallets: US$ 300,000 Wood: 1,700 cubic meters (no cost mentiones)
(a) The 24 chambers need more than 6,000 self-transporters with 600 tons of steel.
Note: This is the cost breakdown for the facility in Alquizar. The others were located in Berros, Guines and Batabano. Multiply by 4 to obtain the total cost.
Source: Fidel Castro’s speech at the inauguration ceremony of the cold storage “Habana IV” in Alquizar, Havana Province (http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1991/esp/f01049/esp/f010491e.html).
H. THE TORULA PLANTS
Table H1. Estimated cost of building and repairing torula plants in Cuba, 1977-1978.
Building CP 4,790,000 US$ 5,340,000 Total cost of 11 plants CP 52,690,000 US$ 58,740,000 Repairs (a): CP 11,200,000 US$ 5,000,000 Partial Total Cost CP 68,680,000 US$ 69,080,000
(a) It refers to the repairs to the Cienfuegos plant in 2010.
Sources: Fidel Castro’s speech of July 29, 1977 (http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1977/esp/f290777e.html).
Television Camaguey: “Avanza reparacion capital de planta de Torula en Camaguey, Cuba”, December 24, 2010.